This article examines the cost–effectiveness of chemotherapy (gemcitabine) versus nanotherapy (PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin) in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Significant differences in costs were mainly due to the initial drug costs, which were €1285.28 in favor of chemotherapy. These costs were more than offset by hospitalization costs, which were €2670.21 in favor of the nanotherapy. The cost per quality-adjusted life week (QALW) for the nanotherapy was estimated to be €220.92/QALW for the base case and ranged from €170–318/QALW based on model assumptions. The clinical benefit associated with nanotherapy was achieved, yielding not only positive cost–effectiveness results, but also, surprisingly, financial savings. Although more studies are necessary, this first comprehensive analysis supports the further use of nanotherapy for ovarian cancer.